• The Kirkwood High School training program focuses on four areas of training:

    • Specific: Training needs to target weaknesses and develop strengths.
    • Progressive: Training must build on past sessions and towards a goal. It must also extend the muscles and body systems with some overload.
    • Appropriate: Different training is needed at different times in the year.
    • Motivating:The athlete needs to enjoy training or at least see a clear purpose.
                                     Planned Performance Training (PPT)

    The basis for track and field training theory and organization is the principle of periodization.  In conjunction with athletics as a whole, track and field operates on a structured system revolving around competition and optimal performance. 

    The primary purpose of training is to improve and plan the performance of the athlete. The systematic application of skill instruction, biomechanics, and the principles of training to the development of track and field athletes is planned performance training.

    assessment, planning, construction and execution of the daily, weekly, and cyclic training components and  and evaluation are the components in PPT.


    The integration of these four components of planned performance training with the fundamental principles of training results in the periodization of the training process. Periodization is the key to planned performance. It is the division of training into distinct units that emphasize different methods and types of training. The aim of periodization is to maximize the physical progress of the athletes and prepare them for a concentrated period of peak competitive activity. Good periodization of training results in good performances on the track or in the field. Devising a functioning plan that varies the mode, volume and intensity of work in accordance with the time available for training and competition enables positive progress to be the rule rather than the exception.


    • Training Cycles: (13 weeks)
    • Training to Train (Conditioning)
    • Pre-Competitive
    • Peaking 


    Types of Training:

    The dilemma for every coach when periodizing training is integrating the many types of work to be done according to sound training principles in a timely and effective manner. In doing so, dividing both the work and time into manageable units is helpful. In track and field, the types of work can be divided into five basic categories: running, strength and agility training, technique, drills and warm-up/flexibility training. With the exception of warm-up/flexibility, the nature of the exercise, volume and intensity all vary substantially throughout the course of the training year. Running composes the bulk of most track and field training. For that reason coaches must pay special attention to the volume and intensity of this training mode.


    Principles and Methods of Training:

    • Strength and agility training focus on the overall development of physical capacity and coordination skills. For the high school coach, this is an important and delicate component of training.
    • Technique development concentrates on the development of the whole action of a given event.
    • Drills are a subdivision of technique development. Drills develop and reinforce individual elements of a particular technique.
    • Warm-up/warm-down/mobility/flexibility are those portions of training that help athletes prepare for strenuous activity and help them recover properly after the activity.

    The Warm is also used to practice skills and prepare mentally. There is minimum static stretching/Lots of Dynamic Stretching a cool down or gentle exercise to return the heart rate to normal and remove lactic acid. Rollers and bands are also a part of the cool down routine.

    Hurdle mobility drills are also a part of the warm-up routine. These drills can increase the range of motion in the hips and create balance, stability, and functional power that allows the athlete to combine all these facets into the mechanics of successful sprinting. Hurdle mobility is important because it not only allows athletes to be in a position to be more explosive, but also helps prevent injury by increasing range of motion.

    Success = Ability + Preparation + Effort + Will

    Ability. Everyone has ability, but it isn’t distributed equally or predictably. This applies to coaches as well as athletes. Often ability is a gift of birth, but that doesn’t guarantee success. The challenge isn’t to have ability but to develop and use the ability that is given.

    Preparation. We gain greater use of our abilities by investing in preparation.
    Only through the persistent and consistent process of preparation can raw talent
    be transformed into greater capability. In track and field, this preparation is called training. Through proper training, athletes become faster, stronger, more skilled, knowledgeable, confident and mentally tough; however, although developing greater capability is important, it is still no guarantee of success.

    Effort. Developed ability realizes its value when expressed through the challengeof competition. That expression is accomplished when physical and mental effort summon every ounce of one’s capability. Still, athletes often find themselves nearing the finish of their race exhausted, having given all they think possible, but needing to find even more. In sport this is called...crunch time!

    Will. Crunch time is real, both in sport and life. It is that moment when a person thinks he or she has given all there is to give, only to find out even more is required. Many athletic contests are won or lost at this moment. Some athletes are able to draw on an inner strength to summon greater effort than they know themselves to have. This is the use of one’s will, the power to go back to one’s personal reservoir again and again as needed.